The aim of the study is to estimate the impact of import competition, particularly from China, on labour market outcomes in South Africa, with a focus on manufacturing employment. In addition, the model is extended to a local labour market approach that is able to estimate the broader impacts on other labour market outcomes and on other sectors. The dataset used in this study is constructed by matching detailed sectoral labour market data with product-level trade data. The main analysis uses an instrumental variable approach, which is complemented by descriptive analysis. This study contributes to the literature by providing robust causal analysis of the impact of manufacturing import competition on the labour market in a developing country, in a context of deindustrialization. The results will be useful to inform trade and industrial policy in middle-income countries facing similar challenges.