South Africa has, until now, focused its HIV prevention efforts on youth and adults, and now needs to expand its focus to include children. Much is already known about vertical transmission, which is the dominant mode of HIV transmission among children. However, little investigation has been done into the potential for horizontal transmission of HIV on the population below reproductive age. This report focuses on children aged 2-9 years and, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, presents evidence on the potential for HIV transmission in dental, maternity and pediatric services in public health facilities. A new finding concerns the practice of shared breastfeeding.