While South Africa has one of the highest hypertension rates globally, there are few data on masked hypertension (MHT) and white-coat hypertension (WCHT). This study measured the frequency of MHT and WCHT in low-income (<$500 US per month) South African adults, evaluating cardiovascular risk by arterial stiffness. Participants (n=101, 50% male; mean age 39.4 ± 9.7 years) were recruited from a large North-West Province employer. Clinic and 24-hour blood pressure (BP) and pulse wave analysis were recorded. Clinic BP identi?ed 18% of patients as hypertensive, while 24-hour BP showed that 63% of patients were hypertensive. The frequency of MHT was high (33 of 81, 41%) with only one case of WCHT. In comparison to those with normal clinic and 24-hour BP, augmentation index and pulse wave velocity were signi?cantly higher in those with hypertensive 24-hour BP irrespective of clinic BP, indicating that, in this group, masked and sustained hypertension carry a similar elevated cardiovascular risk.