The Situation Analysis of Newborn Health in Uganda focuses on the prevailing health and care practices for the newborn. It is Government’s response, in line with Health Sector Strategic Plan II for the 2005-10, to develop and implement an effective comprehensive and responsive health system to reach all newborns and their mothers, to reduce unwonted deaths and improve newborn health within a continuum of care. The overall objective was to carry out a situational analysis of newborn health and care in the country, determining levels and trends of newborn mortality and morbidity, risk factors for ill health; reviewing current practices regarding newborn care at facility and community level; reviewing existing services, policies and programmes; determining existing levels of skill and capacity of health providers and community-based workers; and highlighting gaps in policies, programmes, services and identifying essential information needed to improve newborn health in Uganda. The study was conducted through review of literature complemented by a field study in eight rural districts (Iganga, Kumi, Kayunga, Rakai, Kabarole, Bushenyi, Arua, Lira) and two urban divisions of Kampala City, to give a regional representation. It employed both qualitative and survey methods, including a review of documents and health facility records, key informants (KI), focus group discussions (FGDs), facility observations, and household interviews to mothers with infants less than 12 months old. Data was collected during the months of February and April 2007.