In Malawi, malaria continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality particularly among children under the age of five years and pregnant women. Following the launch of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative in 1998 and the signing of the Abuja Declaration by the Heads of States and Governments in 2000, greater attention has been towards implementing activities to prevent malaria in most African countries including Malawi. In the Abuja Declaration, the Heads of States and Governments made a firm commitment to reduce malaria to a level of no significance by the year 2030. Meanwhile, the Heads of States and Governments also committed that by the year 2005 at least 60 % of children under five years of age and pregnant women should have access to effective malaria treatment within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms, at least 60 % of the children under five years of age and pregnant women should sleep under insecticide treated nets which are accessible and affordable, and at least 60 % of all pregnant women who are at risk of malaria, especially those in their first pregnancies, should receive presumptive intermittent treatment (PIT) whether they show symptoms or signs of malaria or not. In line with this commitment, the government of Malawi, in conjunction with donor and other agencies is implementing activities that will help achieve the targets of the RBM initiative. These activities include the distribution and utilization of ITNs as a preventive measure against malaria especially for pregnant women and under-five children, promotion of effective and appropriate malaria treatment within 24 hours of onset of fever, and provision of presumptive intermittent treatment (PIT) for pregnant women. While goals in the fight against malaria have been set, the Malaria Control programme and partners felt that it was important that the implementation processes should be properly monitored. This study, commissioned by the National Malaria Control Programme and UNICEF, was therefore aimed at determining the progress that Malawi has made in achieving the targets as set in the Abuja Declaration. The findings will also stand as benchmarks for future reference regarding achievements and shortfalls in the fight against malaria.