Crime in South Africa remains a serious challenge and there is a general feeling in the country that the situation is worsening. But attempts have been made to reduce crime through the implementation of mechanisms that respond specifically to particular contextual problems and involve, to some extent, a local interpretation of international experiences. This paper highlights a number of responses, particularly those that recognize the physical (built) environment as a factor that could enhance or reduce opportunities for crime. It commences with a brief discussion of some of the distinctive features of the South African context and a number of key challenges impacting on crime and crime reduction initiatives in the country. The next section deals with some typical responses to the crime problems in South Africa, followed by a description of an approach to crime prevention through environmental design developed in response to the local context and challenges.