Kwazulu-Natal Income Dynamics Study 1993-1998, Waves 1-2
Income/Expenditure Survey [hh/ies]
The 1993 Project for Statistics on Living Standards and Development was an integrated household survey similar in design to a World Bank Living Standards Measurement Survey. The survey collected data on the socio-economic condition of households. Households in Kwazulu-Natal province were re-surveyed from March to June 1998 for the Kwazulu-Natal Income Dynamics Study. Combining these two survey datasets has yielded a panel (or longitudinal) dataset in which the same individuals and households have been interviewed at two points in time, 1993 and 1998. These are the first two waves of the KIDS panel study.
The institutions collaborating in the KIDS study include the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
Households and individuals
v2: Edited, anonymised dataset for public distribution
This version of the Kwazulu Natal Income Dynamics Study 1993-1998 was released in 2001. Changes to the first version of the data release (April 2000) are the exclusion of two clusters from both the 1993 and 1998 samples.
During follow-up field research in May 2001 it was discovered that all 39 household interviews in clusters 217 and 218 had been fabricated in both 1993 and 1998; these households have therefore been dropped in the updated release of the data. Also, cluster 206 is now coded as urban as it was incorrectly coded as rural in the 1993 released data. Note: Weights calculated by the World Bank and provided with the original data are NOT updated to reflect these changes.
This version, Version 2, corresponds to version 1 available from the UKZN. We have reversioned the data to reflect the above changes, and the fact that it is referred to as such in the documentation. The full version number change reflects the fact that this is a re-release from the data producers, and not an incremental change. This version is not the same as the version 2 data also available on the UKZN site, which should not be used.
The dataset includes the basic data files and useful files constructed by the KIDS team, plus the syntax used in their construction.
Wave 1 - 1993 (This is a subsample of respondents from the Project for Statistics on Living Standards and Development Study 1993, an LSMS study conducted by the University of Cape Town and the World Bank.
Wave 2 - 1998
Wave 3 - 2004
The Project for Statistics on Living Standards and Development 1993-1 included sections on household demographics, household environment, education, food and non-food expenditures, remittances, employment and income, agricultural activities, health, and anthropometry (weights and heights of children aged six and under).
To ensure comparability, the 1998 Kwazulu-Natal Income Dynamics Study household questionnaire largely followed the 1993 PSLSD study, though there were some important changes. One of these was a greater focus on individual (as opposed to household) ownership of assets and control over their use so that individual, generation, and gender-differentiated analyses are possible. A second difference was an expanded emphasis on those individuals not living in the household but economically linked to it.Four new sections were added including economic shocks (both positive and negative), social capital (including group membership, kin networks, civic engagement, and trust), assets brought to marriage, and household decisionmaking
The survey covered households in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, on the east coast of South Africa.
The lowest level of geographic aggregation covered by the data is magisterial district
The Kwazulu Natal Income Dynamics Study 1993-1998 covered all household members.
Producers and sponsors
International Food Policy Research Institute
School of Development Studies
University of Natal (now University of Kwazulu-Natal)
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit
University of Cape Town
Producer of the 1993 data
Development Bank of South Africa
Centre for Science Development
United States Agency for International Development
University of Wisconsin-Madison
The 1993 sample was selected using a two-stage self-weighting design. In the first stage, clusters were chosen with probability proportional to size from census enumerator subdistricts (ESD) or approximate equivalents where an ESD was not available. In the second stage, all households in each chosen cluster were enumerated and a random sample of them selected. (See PSLSD, 1994, for further details.)
In 1993, the KwaZulu-Natal portion of the PSLSD sample was designed to be representative at the provincial level, conditional on the accuracy of the 1991 census and other information used for the sampling frame, and contained households of all races. Due to the geographic concentration of African and Indian households, KIDS-unlike the PSLSD-limits its scope to African and Indian households. In the KwaZulu-Natal province, Africans represent 85 percent of the population and Indians represent 12 percent. Compared with their representation nationally, White and Coloured people are underrepresented in KwaZulu-Natal. Effectively, the numbers of White and Coloureds in the KwaZulu-Natal sample are too small, and too geographically concentrated in a few clusters, to permit meaningful inference. The KIDS study has thus been limited to the first two population groups.
PSLSD was a survey of households. However, households are a complicated object to define, particularly in longitudinal studies. To transform KIDS from a single-round household survey into a longitudinal household panel study required a redefinition of the sampling unit. In 1998, a decision was made to follow the core household members with the intention of capturing the major decision makers within the household. A household member is a core person if he/she satisfied any of the following criteria (the self-declared head of household from the 1993 survey):
- Spouse/partner of the self-declared head of household (from the 1993 survey)
- Lives in a three generation household and all of the following are true:
- Child of the self-declared household head, son/daughter-in-law of the household head, or niece/nephew of self-declared head
- At least 30 years old
- Has at least one child living in household
- Spouse/partner of person satisfying criteria
Thus all heads of households and spouses of heads are automatically classified as core and in some three-generation households, adult children are also included in this cateogry. In this way, we can see the 1993 survey as the baseline information for a random sample of dynasties. The efforts of the 1998 and 2004 surveyors to find the location of the 1993 core members can then be seen as a way to keep track of the 1993 dynasties.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Research Africa
KIDS re-interviews the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) sample of the 1993 nationwide survey known as the Project for Statistics on Living Standards and Development (PSLSD.) The original project was financed by the World Bank and had the characteristics of the Living Standard Measurement Surveys. Reflecting their origin, all three waves of fieldwork for KIDS-1993, 1998, and 2004-collected information on household composition, expenditure on food and on other durable and non-durable goods, education, health, agricultural production, employment, and additional sources of labor and non-labor income. To ensure comparability, the 1998 and 2004 questionnaires largely followed the 1993 version of the questionnaire, however, a few modules have been added and removed. For example, the 1998 survey added sections on assets to marriage, economic shocks, and social capital and trust.
International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Natal-Durban and University of Wisconsin-Madison. Kwazulu-Natal Income Dynamics Study (KIDS) 1993-1998. [dataset]. Version 2. Washington, Durban, Wisconsin: IFPRI, UND, UWM [producers], 2001. Cape Town: DataFirst [distributor], 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25828/mqh7-e378