National Income Dynamics Study - Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey 2021, Wave 4
Household Survey [hh]
The National Income Dynamics Study - Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey investigates the socioeconomic impacts of the national lockdown associated with the State of Disaster declared in South Africa in March 2020, and the social and economic consequences in South Africa of the global Coronavirus pandemic. NIDS-CRAM forms part of a broader study called the Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (CRAM) which aims to inform policy using rapid reliable research on income, employment and welfare in South Africa, in the context of the global Coronavirus pandemic. The study is run by researchers from the University of Stellenbosch, University of Cape Town (UCT) and University of the Witwatersrand (Wits). The NIDS-CRAM survey data collection and production operations were implemented by the Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit (SALDRU) at UCT. The data is collected with Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI), with data collection repeated over several months.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
Households and individuals
v2.0.0.: Edited, anonymised data for public distribution
In version 2.0.0 of NIDS-CRAM 2021 Wave 4 all weights in the Derived file were updated as a result of outcomes in Wave 5. Minor data cleaning and data quality error corrections were also undertaken on all variables.
The NIDS-CRAM Survey collects data on the following for households and household members:
Demographics (age, gender, race)
Labour and income (education, employment, income, occupation, threats to business/income from the lockdown), pensions and government grants, financial support)
Household and Social (housing type, household size, access to water and electricity)
Health and COVID-19 (behaviour and knowledge related to COVID-19, tests, infections, symptoms, health facility visits, health conditions, access to medical insurance).
The survey had national coverage. As NIDS was only designed to be nationally representative, it is inadvisable to use the NIDS-CRAM data to calculate provincial or regional totals.
The NIDS-CRAM data is at the country level only.
The universe of the study is South Africans 18 years old or older.
Producers and sponsors
Nic Spaull, Ronelle Burger, Rulof Burger, David Carel, Reza Daniels, Nwabisa Makaluza, Dorrit Posel, Vimal Ranchhod, Servaas van der Berg, Gabrielle Wills
Allan and Gill Gray Philanthropy
Funder of Waves 1-3
FEM Education Foundation
Funder of Waves 4-5
Michael & Susan Dell Foundation
Funder of Waves 4-5
The sample frame for NIDS-CRAM is the NIDS Wave 5 CSMs and TSMs who were 18 years or older at the time of the NIDS-CRAM Wave 1 fieldwork preparation in April 2020. The sample was drawn using a stratified sampling design. No attempt was made to check whether successfully re-interviewed individuals resided in the same households as they did in Wave 5. In the survey, individuals from larger households were more likely to be sampled than individuals from smaller households.
The weighted NIDS-CRAM survey data reflects the outcomes in 2020 for a broadly representative sample of South Africans 15 years and older from NIDS Wave 5 in 2017 who were followed up 3 years later.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Telephone Interview [cati]
Ethics approval for the NIDS-CRAM Survey was granted by the Commerce Faculty Ethics Committee of the University of Cape Town and the Research Ethics Committee: Social, Behavioral and Education Research, of the University of Stellenbosch.
Data Collection Notes
The NIDS-CRAM survey data collection and production operations were implemented by the Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit (SALDRU) based at the University of Cape Town. CATI interviews were conducted in the preferred official South African language of respondents.
Though NIDS-CRAM is a follow-up with NIDS Wave 5 respondents, the NIDS-CRAM survey uses a much shorter questionnaire, with a focus on the Coronavirus pandemic and the national lockdown. The questionnaire was changed slightly across waves and data users should check the questionnaires for each wave when using the data.
University of Cape Town
Public use files, available to all
National Income Dynamics Study - Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (NIDS-CRAM) 2021, Wave 4 [dataset]. Version 2.0.0. Johannesburg and Cape Town: FEM Education Foundation and Michael and Susan Dell Foundation [funding agencies]. Cape Town: Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit [implementer], 2021. Cape Town: DataFirst [distributor], 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25828/y5qj-x095