The 2000 EDHS is the fourth full-scale Demographic and Health Survey to be implemented in Egypt; the earlier surveys were conducted in 1988, 1992, and 1995. Two additional interim DHS surveys were carried out in 1997 and 1998.
The 2000 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey is, part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys project, carried out in Egypt that provide information on fertility behavior and its determinants, particularly contraceptive use. The EDHS findings are important in monitoring trends for key variables and in understanding the factors that contribute to differentials in fertility and contraceptive use among various population subgroups. The EDHS also provides a wealth of healthrelated information about mothers and their children. These data are of special importance for understanding the factors that influence the health and survival of infants and young children.
The 2000 EDHS was designed to provide estimates for key indicators such as fertility, contraceptive use, infant and child mortality, immunization levels, coverage of antenatal and delivery care, and maternal and child health and nutrition. The survey results are intended to assist policymakers and planners in assessing the current health and population programs and in designing new strategies for improving reproductive health and health services in Egypt.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
The 2000 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey covers the following topics:
- Anemia Questions–Questions or testing assessing prevalence/severity of iron-def. anemia among women or children
- Anemia Testing
- Child Labor
- Early Childhood Education
- Female Genital Cutting
- GPS/Georeferenced–Global Positioning System or Georeferenced Data
- Reproductive Calendar
- Vitamin A Questions
- Women's Status–Questions: women's autonomy (household decisionmaking/free movement/access money) & Dom. violence
Producers and sponsors
Egypt. Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP)
Egypt. National Population Council (NPC)
United States Agency for International Development, Cairo
The primary objective of the sample design for the 2000 EDHS was to provide estimates of key population and health indicators including fertility and child mortality rates for the country as a whole and for six major administrative regions (the Urban Governorates, urban Lower Egypt, rural Lower Egypt, urban Upper Egypt, rural Upper Egypt, and the Frontier Governorates). In the Urban Governorates, Lower Egypt, and Upper Egypt, the design allowed for governorate-level estimates of most of the key variables, with the exception of the fertility and mortality rates. In the Frontier Governorates, the sample size was not sufficiently large to provide separate estimates for the individual governorates. To meet the survey objectives, the number of households selected in the 2000 EDHS sample from each governorate was not proportional to the size of the population in the governorate. As a result, the 2000 EDHS sample is not self-weighting at the national level, and weights have to be applied to the data to obtain the national-level estimates presented in this report.
The sample for the 2000 EDHS was selected in three stages. The first stage included selecting the primary sampling units. The units of selection were shiakhas/towns in urban areas and villages in rural areas. Information from the 1996 census was used in constructing the frame from which the primary sampling units (PSUs) were selected. Prior to selecting the PSUs, the frame was updated to take into account administrative changes that had occurred since 1996. The updating process included both office work and field visits during a three-month period. After it was completed, urban and rural units were stratified by geographical location in a serpentine order from the northwest corner to the southeast corner within each governorate. During this process, shiakhas or villages with a population less than 2,500 were grouped with contiguous shiakhas or villages (usually within the same kism or marquez) to form units with a population of at least 5,000. After the frame was ordered, a total of 500 primary sampling units (228 shiakhas/towns and 272 villages) were selected.
The second stage of selection involved several steps. First, detailed maps of the PSUs chosen during the first stage were obtained and divided into parts of roughly equal population size (about 5,000). In shiakhas/towns or villages with a population of 20,000 or more, two parts were selected. In the remaining smaller shiakhas/towns or villages, only one part was selected. Overall, a total of 735 parts were selected from the shiakhas/towns and villages in the 2000 EDHS sample.
A quick count was then carried out to provide an estimate of the number of households in each part. This information was needed to divide each part into standard segments of about 200 households. A group of 37 experienced field workers participated in the quick count operation. They were organized into 13 teams, each consisting of 1 supervisor, 1 cartographer and 1 or 2 counters. A one-week training course conducted prior to the quick count included both classroom sessions and field practice in a shiakha/town and a village not covered in the survey. The quickcount operation took place between late March and May 1999.
As a quality control measure, the quick count was repeated in 10 percent of the parts. If the difference between the results of the first and second quick count was less than 2 percent, then the first count was accepted. No major discrepancies were found between the two counts in most of the areas for which the count was repeated.
After the quick count, a total of 1,000 segments were chosen from the parts in each shiakha/town and village in the 2000 EDHS sample (i.e., two segments were selected from each of the 500 PSUs). A household listing operation was then implemented in each of the selected segments. To conduct this operation, 12 supervisors and 24 listers were organized into 12 teams. Generally, each listing team consisted of a supervisor and two listers. A one-week training course for the listing staff was held in mid-September 1999. The training involved classroom lectures and two days of field practice in three urban and rural locations not covered in the survey. The listing operation began at the end of September and continued for about 40 days.
About 10 percent of the segments were relisted. Two criteria were used to select segments for relisting. First, segments were relisted when the number of households in the listing differed markedly from that expected according to the quick count information. Second, a number of segments were randomly selected to be relisted as an additional quality control test. Overall, few major discrepancies were found in comparisons of the listings. However, a third visit to the field was necessary in a few segments in the Cairo and Aswan governorates because of significant discrepancies between the results of the original listing and the relisting operation.
The third stage involved selecting the household sample. Using the household lists for each segment, a systematic random sample of households was selected for the 2000 EDHS sample. All ever-married women 15-49 who were usual residents or who were present in the sampled households on the night before the interview were eligible for the EDHS.
Note: See detailed description of sample design in APPENDIX B of the report which is presented in this documentation.
Out of 17,521 households selected for the 2000 EDHS, 17,103 households were found, and 16,957 households were successfully interviewed which represents a response rate of 99 percent.
A total of 15,649 women were identified as eligible to be interviewed. Questionnaires were completed for 15,573 of those women, which represents a response rate of 99.5 percent. The household response rate exceeded 98 percent in all residential categories, and the response rate for eligible women exceeded 99 percent in all areas.
Note: See summarized response rates by place of residence in Table 1.4 of the report which is presented in this documentation.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
To recruit interviewers and field editors, a list was obtained from the Ministry of Social Affairs (MOSA) of female personnel who were working to fulfill the one-year period of governmental public service that is mandatory for university graduates. All candidates nominated by MOSA for the field staff positions were interviewed, and only those who were qualified were accepted into the training program.
All candidates for the interviewer and field editor positions were recent university graduates. Another basic qualification was a willingness to work in any of the governorates covered in the survey. With a few exceptions, interviewers who had previous experience in surveys were not accepted into the training program. This decision was made to reduce any bias that might result from previous survey experience and to ensure that all trainees had a similar background. However, previous survey experience was a basic qualification for the candidates for the positions of supervisor.
All of the staff recruited for the anemia testing were required to have a medical background. Some were assigned by the MOHP, and others were recruited from among newly graduated physicians.
A variety of materials were developed for use in training personnel involved in the fieldwork. A lengthy interviewer’s manual, including general guidelines for conducting an interview as well as specific instructions for asking each of the questions in the EDHS questionnaires, was prepared and given to all field staff. In addition, a chart for converting months from the Islamic calendar to the Gregorian calendar was designed for the 74 months before the 2000 EDHS and distributed to all field staff.
Other training materials, including special manuals describing the duties of the team supervisor and the rules for field editing, were prepared. Instructions for anthropometric data collection were included in a manual for the staff trained to collect height and weight data. A special manual covering the procedures to be followed in the anemia testing was also prepared.
Training for Supervisors and Interviewers
A special training program for supervisors was conducted during a three-day period prior to the main fieldwork training. This training focused specifically on the supervisor’s duties, but it also covered the 2000 EDHS questionnaires in order to give supervisors a basic understanding of the content of the survey prior to the main training program.
Training for interviewers for the 2000 EDHS data collection began in mid-January 2000. Twenty supervisors, 88 interviewers, and 34 anemia-testing and anthropometric-data-collection staff participated in the training program. This five-week training program, which was held in Cairo, included the following:
- Lectures related to basic interview techniques and to specific survey topics (e.g., fertility and family planning, maternal and child health, and female circumcision)
- Sessions on how to fill out the questionnaire, using visual aids
- Role playing and mock interviews
- Four days of field practice in areas not covered in the survey
- Nine quizzes.
Trainees who failed to show interest in the survey, who did not attend the training program on a regular basis, or who failed the first three quizzes were terminated immediately. At the beginning of the third week of training, a list was prepared of the 17 trainees who had performed best during both the classroom and field practices. These trainees were further examined to select 13 field editors. A special training session was held for the field editors after their selection. By the end of the training course, 63 of the 88 candidates originally recruited for interviewer training had been selected to work as interviewers or field editors in the EDHS fieldwork.
Training for Anthropometric-data-collection and Anemia-testing staff
were selected for training in anthropometric data collection and anemia testing. The training included both classroom lectures and practice measurement and blood testing in a nursery school, in health facilities, and in households. At the end of the program, the 26 most-qualified trainees were selected for the anthropometric data collection and anemia testing. As discussed earlier, all of the personnel involved in the anemia testing had a medical background. Most were medical school graduates.
Fieldwork for the 2000 EDHS began on February 23, 2000 and was completed in late April 2000. A total of 105 staff members, including 1 fieldwork coordinator, 2 assistant fieldwork coordinators, 13 supervisors, 13 field editors, and 50 interviewers were responsible for the data collection. In addition, 26 staff members were responsible for the anthropometric measurement and anemia testing. All supervisors were males, while the field editors and interviewers were females. One male and one female staff member were involved in the anthropometric measurement and the anemia testing.
The field staff was divided into 13 teams; each team had 1 supervisor, 1 field editor, 3 to 4 interviewers, and 2 staff members assigned to height and weight measurement and anemia testing. During the fieldwork, the 13 field teams worked in separate governorates; the number of governorates assigned to an individual team varied from one to three, according to the sample size in the governorates.
As soon as the main data collection was completed in the first group of governorates, a random sample of up to 10 percent of the households was selected for reinterview as a quality control measure. Shorter versions of the 2000 EDHS questionnaires were prepared and used for the reinterviews. The visits to PSUs to conduct reinterviews also afforded an opportunity to make callbacks to complete interviews with households or individuals who were not available at the time of the original visit by the 2000 EDHS interviewers. Household or individual questionnaires in which there were significant errors that could not be corrected in the office were also assigned for callbacks. Special teams were organized to handle callbacks and reinterviews. During this phase of the survey, interviewers were not allowed to work in the governorate in which they had worked in the initial fieldwork. Callbacks and reinterviews began on April 15, 2000 and were completed by May 15, 2000.
The questionnaire for each DHS can be found as an appendix in the final report for each study.
The 2000 EDHS involved two questionnaires: a household questionnaire and an individual questionnaire. The household and individual questionnaires were based on the model survey instruments developed by MEASURE DHS+ for countries with high contraceptive prevalence. Questions on a number of topics not covered in the DHS model questionnaires were also included in the 2000 EDHS questionnaires. In some cases, those items were drawn from the questionnaires used for earlier rounds of the DHS in Egypt. In other cases, the questions were intended to collect information on topics not covered in the earlier surveys (e.g., schooling of children).
The household questionnaire consisted of three parts: a household schedule, a series of questions related to the socioeconomic status of the household, and height and weight measurement and anemia testing. The household schedule was used to list all usual household members and visitors and to identify those present in the household during the night before the interviewer’s visit. For each of the individuals included in the schedule, information was collected on the relationship to the household head, age, sex, marital status (for those 15 years and older), educational attainment, repetition and dropout (for those 6-24 years), and work status (for those 6 years and older). The second part of the household questionnaire obtained information on characteristics of the physical and social environment of the household (e.g., type of dwelling, availability of electricity, source of drinking water, household possessions, and the type of salt the household used for cooking). Height and weight measurements were obtained and recorded in the last part of the household questionnaire for all ever-married women age 15-49 years and all children born since January 1995 who were listed in the household schedule. In a subsample of households, all eligible women, all children born since January 1995, and all children age 11-19 years were eligible for anemia testing.
The individual questionnaire was administered to all ever-married women age 15-49 who were usual residents or who were present in the household during the night before the interviewer’s visit. It obtained information on the following topics:
- Respondent’s background
- Contraceptive knowledge and use
- Fertility preferences and attitudes about family planning
- Pregnancy and breastfeeding
- Immunization and health
- Schooling of children and child labor
- Female circumcision
- Marriage and husband’s background
- Woman’s work and residence.
The individual questionnaire included a monthly calendar, which was used to record a history of the respondent’s fertility, contraceptive use (including the source where the method was obtained and the reason for discontinuation for each segment of use), and marriage status during each month of around a five-year period beginning in January 1995.
Two pretests were conducted during the preparation for the 2000 EDHS. After a ten-day training course, the household and individual questionnaires were pretested first in May 1999 in a small number of households. Two supervisors, two field editors, and eight interviewers participated in the first pretest. The pretest was conducted in two Upper Egypt governorates (Beni Suef and Fayoum) and two Lower Egypt governorates (Gharbia and Menoufia). A total of 276 household and 273 individual interviews were completed during the pretest.
A larger-scale pretest was conducted in October 1999, including height and weight measurements as well as anemia testing. A three-week training course was conducted prior to the data collection for this pretest. Using six teams, the second pretest was conducted in all the governorates (excluding the Frontier Governorates). A total of 6 supervisors, 6 field editors, and 22 interviewers shared in the data collection with the health technicians who were responsible for the height and weight data collection and anemia testing in a subsample of households. The data collection took about two weeks, and approximately 3,000 households were interviewed.
The questionnaires for the 2000 EDHS were finalized after the second pretest. Both comments from interviewers and tabulations of the pretest results were reviewed during the process of finalizing the questionnaires.
Staff from the central office were responsible for collecting questionnaires from the teams as soon as a cluster was completed. Office editors reviewed questionnaires for consistency and completeness, and a few questions (e.g., occupation) were coded in the office prior to data entry. To provide feedback for the field teams, the office editors were instructed to report any problems detected while editing the questionnaires, which were reviewed by the senior staff. If serious errors were found in one or more questionnaires from a cluster, the supervisor of the team working in that cluster was notified and advised of the steps to be taken to avoid these problems in the future.
Machine entry and editing
Machine entry and editing began while interviewing teams were still in the field. The data from the questionnaires were entered and edited on microcomputers using the Integrated System for Survey Analysis (ISSA), a software package developed especially for the Demographic and Health Surveys program.
Eleven data entry personnel used ten microcomputers to process the 2000 EDHS survey data. During the machine entry, 100 percent of each segment was reentered for verification. By working one shift six days per week, the data processing staff completed the entry and editing of data by the end of May 2000.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: (1) nonsampling errors, and (2) sampling errors. Nonsampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the 2000 EDHS to minimize this type of error, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically.
Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the 2000 EDHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results.
A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the 2000 EDHS sample is the result of a multi-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulae. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the 2000 EDHS is the ISSA Sampling Error Module (ISSAS). This module used the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. The Jacknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates.
Note: See detailed estimate of sampling error calculation in APPENDIX C of the report which is presented in this documentation.
Data Quality Notes
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
Note: See detailed tables in APPENDIX D of the report which is presented in this documentation.
Data and Data Related Resources
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Egypt National Population Council (NPC), Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP), and ORC Macro, Calverton, Maryland USA. Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2000. Dataset downloaded from www.measuredhs.com on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.